Why women live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women have a longer life span than men? What is the reason the advantage has grown over time? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn’t sufficient to draw an informed conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; however, we do not know how strong the relative contribution of each of these factors is.

It is known that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. However, افضل كريم للشعر this is not because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in every country can expect to live longer than her younger brother.

The chart below shows that while there is a female advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the difference is just half an hour.



In wealthy countries, the advantage of women in longevity was not as great.

Let’s take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two aspects stand out.

First, there’s an upward trend. as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used be very modest, but it grew substantially over the course of the last century.

If you select the option “Change country by country’ in the chart, verify that these two points are applicable to other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.